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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

CHAPTER VH THE VARIEGATED, ORANGE AND BUTLER GLACIERS
VABBBGATBD GLA.CIEB
Previous Description. Russell, the first scientific man to see this glacier which lies just east of Hubbard Glacier described it as follows * in 1890:—
"A debris-covered glacier, so completely concealed by continuous sheets of stones and earth that its true character can scarcely be recognized, descends from the mountains just east of Hubbard Glacier. It is formed by the union of two principal tributaries, and, on reaching comparatively level ground, expands into a broad ice foot, but does not have sufficient volume to reach the sea."
On his second expedition in 1891, having a better view of it, Russell decided that the Variegated Glacier coalesced with the Hubbard.2
"East of Hubbard Glacier there is a large buried glacier fed by several ice streams from the mountains above, which I judged from the view obtained from the Conoin, in 1890, was separated from the Hubbard Glacier, but better opportunities for observation obtained a year later showed that the two ice bodies are confluent."
Gilbert" reached the same conclusion in 1899, as did Gannett * in making his map. Gilbert's description of what we now call Variegated Glacier, based on seeing it from between Hubbard and Variegated Glaciers and upon a comprehensive view from the 1000 foot station above Osier Island, was as follows. He is writing about the combined Hubbard and Variegated Glaciers.
"The southeastern third of the glacier was moraine covered, not only at the water edge but for nearly or quite two miles inland. The material was coarse and angular, and was divided into zones or belts distinguished at a distance by their contrasting colors—black, yellow, purple, green, blue-black, and orange or rusty. These bands had not the ordinary arrangement of parallel medial moraines, but tended rather to contour the slope, and the search for their origin and meaning would make an interesting and profitable study. Some of them occupy ridges and others hollows, suggesting inequality in their ability to retard the melting of the ice beneath, but the whole surface was rugged in detail, exhibiting a continuous series of hummocks and kettles."
Our interpretation of the relationship of Hubbard and Variegated Glaciers, already stated in connection with Hubbard Glacier, is that, although the two glaciers undoubtedly coalesce, they are essentially independent (Map 3), The name Variegated has,
i Russell, I. C., An Expedition to Mount St. Ellas, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 8,1891. p. 100. * Russell, I, C., Second Expedition to Mount St. Elks, in 1891.    Thirteenth Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Surrey, pt. 1, 1892, p. 85.
' Gilbert, G. K., Glaciers and Glaciation, Haniman Alaska Expedition, Vol. 3,1904, pp. 68-65. ' Gannett, Henry, Same, Plate VEH, opposite p. 62.
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